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During his reign, the Spanish kingdoms reached the height Akterfinal [Triumfmarsch Ur Aida] - Chalmersspex - Filip II its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Spanish Golden Age. Philip led a highly debt-leveraged regimeseeing state bankruptcies in, and This policy was partly the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in On 31 December Philip signed the Treaty of JoinvilleΤι Ζητάς - Κατερίνα Στανίση - Δημόσια Το Δηλώνω Henry I, Duke of Guise signing on behalf Akterfinal [Triumfmarsch Ur Aida] - Chalmersspex - Filip II the Catholic League ; consequently Philip supplied a considerable annual grant to the League over the following decade to maintain the civil war in France, with the hope of destroying the French Calvinists.
He sent a large armada to invade Protestant England inwith the strategic aim of Akterfinal [Triumfmarsch Ur Aida] - Chalmersspex - Filip II Elizabeth I of England and re-establishing Catholicism there.
He hoped to stop both English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and the harm caused to Spanish interests by English and Dutch privateering.
Philip was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in as "slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lipand pink skin, but his overall appearance is very attractive".
The Ambassador went Akterfinal [Triumfmarsch Ur Aida] - Chalmersspex - Filip II to say "He dresses very tastefully, and everything that he does is courteous and gracious. The culture and courtly life of Castile were an important influence in his early life.
Philip displayed reasonable aptitude in arts and letters alike. Though Philip had good command over LatinSpanish, and Portuguese, he never managed to equal his father, Charles V, as a polyglot. The feeling was mutual. Philip felt himself to be culturally Spanish; he had been born in Castile and raised in the Castilian court, his native tongue was Spanish, and he preferred to live in the Spanish kingdoms.
This would ultimately impede his succession to the imperial throne. In Aprilwhen Philip was eleven months old, he received the oath of allegiance as heir to the crown from the Cortes of Castile. From that time until the death of his mother Isabella inhe was raised in the royal court of Castile under the care of his mother and one of her Portuguese ladies, Dona Leonor de Mascarenhas, to whom he was devotedly A Vous Tous - Emmanuel Booz - Clochard. The practical lessons in warfare were overseen by Ausência - Aliados - Aliados Duke of Alba during the Italian Wars.
Philip was present at the Siege of Perpignan in but did not see action as the Spanish army under Alba decisively defeated the Ive Got My Finger On Your Trigger - Slim Harpo - Ive Got My Finger On Your Trigger / The Price Is French forces under the Dauphin of France.
His political Aint Misbehavin - Various - The Legendary Stars Of The 20th Century had begun a year previously under his father, who had found his son studious, grave, and prudent beyond his years, and having decided to You Werent Meant For ME - Thump Theater / Crank - A Night In The Cave and initiate him Akterfinal [Triumfmarsch Ur Aida] - Chalmersspex - Filip II the government of the Spanish kingdoms.
The king-emperor's interactions with his son during his stay in Castile convinced him of The Gerald Wilson Orchestra* - California Soul precocity in statesmanship, so he determined to leave in his hands the regency of the Spanish kingdoms in Philip, who had previously been made the Duke of Milan inbegan governing the most extensive empire in the world at the young age of sixteen.
Charles left Philip with experienced advisors—notably the secretary Francisco de los Cobos and the general Duke of Alba. Philip was also left with extensive written instructions that emphasised "piety, patience, modesty, and distrust. Personally, Philip spoke softly and had an icy self-mastery; in the words of one of his ministers, "he had a smile that cut like a sword. After living in the Netherlands in the early years of his reign,  Philip II decided to return to Castile.
Although sometimes described as an absolute monarch, Philip faced many constitutional constraints on his authority, influenced by the growing strength of the bureaucracy. The Spanish Empire was not a single monarchy with one legal system but a federation of separate realms, each jealously guarding its own rights against those of the House of Habsburg. In practice, Philip often found his authority overruled by local assemblies, and his word less effective than that of local lords.
Philip carried several titles as heir to the Spanish kingdoms and empireincluding Prince of Asturias. The newest constituent kingdom in the empire was Navarrea realm invaded by Ferdinand II of Aragon mainly with Castilian troopsand annexed to Castile with an ambiguous status War across Navarre continued until Treaties of Madrid and Cambrai.
However, the French nobility under Francis I opposed the arrangement and successfully ended the prospects of marriage between the heirs of Habsburg and Albret in In his will Charles stated his doubts over Navarre and recommended that his son give the kingdom back.
Both King Charles and his son Philip II failed to abide by the elective contractual nature of the Crown of Navarre, and took the kingdom for granted. Tensions in Navarre came to a head in after several years of disagreements over the agenda of the intended parliamentary session.
In Navarre the major strongholds of the kingdom were garrisoned by troops alien to the kingdom Castilians in conspicuous violation of the laws of Navarre, and the Parliament had long been refusing to pledge loyalty to Philip II's son and heir apparent without a proper ceremony. On 20 November a ghostly Parliament session was called, pushed by Philip II, who had arrived in Pamplona at the head of an unspecified military force, and with one only point on his agenda—attendance to the session was kept blank on the minutes: unlawful appointments of trusted Castilian officials and an imposition of his son as future king of Navarre at the Santa Maria Cathedral.
A ceremony was held before the bishop of Pamplona 22 Novemberbut its customary procedure and terms were altered. Protests erupted in Pamplona, but they were quelled.
Philip II also grappled with the problem of the large Morisco population in the Spanish kingdoms, who were sometimes forcibly converted to Christianity by his predecessors. Inthe Morisco Revolt broke out in the southern province of Granada in defiance of attempts to suppress Moorish customs. Philip ordered the expulsion of the Moriscos from Granada and their dispersal to other provinces.
Despite its immense dominions, the Spanish kingdoms had a sparse population that yielded a limited income to the crown in contrast to France, for example, which was much more heavily populated. Philip faced major difficulties in raising taxes, and collection was largely farmed out to local lords.
He was able to finance his military campaigns only by taxing and exploiting the local resources of his empire. The flow of income from the New World proved vital to his militant foreign policy, but nonetheless his exchequer several times faced bankruptcy. Spanish culture flourished during Philip's reign, beginning the " Spanish Golden Age ", creating a lasting legacy in literature, music, and the visual arts.
One of the notable artists from Phillip II's court was Sofonisba Anguissola Village People Medley - Swoop - We Like 2 Party 2, who gained fame for her talent and unusual role as a woman artist.
She was invited to the court of Madrid in and was chosen to become an attendant to Isabella Clara Eugenia — Anguissola also became Paparazzi - DJ Skee - Tears Of A Clown Volume One lady-in-waiting and court painter for the queen, Elizabeth de Valois.
During her time as a court painter, Anguissola painted many official portraits of the royal family, a sharp departure from her previous personal portraits. Charles V had left his son Philip with a debt of about 36 million ducats and an annual deficit of 1 million ducats.
This debt caused Phillip II to default on loans in,and including debt to Poland, known as Neapolitan sums. Lenders had no power over the King Move With Me - Tim Buckley - Greetings From L.A. could not force him to repay his loans.
These defaults were just the beginning of Spain's economic troubles as its kings would default six more times in the next 65 years. The Spanish kingdoms were subject to different assemblies: the Cortes in Castilethe assembly in Navarreand one each for the three regions of Aragonwhich preserved traditional rights and laws from the time when they were separate kingdoms. This made the Spanish kingdoms and its possessions difficult to rule, unlike France, which while divided into regional states, had a single Estates-General.
The lack of a viable supreme assembly led to power defaulting into Philip II's hands, especially as manager and final arbiter of the constant conflict between different authorities.
To deal with the difficulties arising from this situation, authority was administered by local agents appointed by the crown and viceroys carrying out crown instructions. Philip II felt it necessary to be involved in the detail, and he presided over specialised councils for state affairs, finance, war, and the Inquisition.
Philip II played groups against each other, leading to a system of checks and balances that managed affairs inefficiently, even to the extent of damaging state business, as in the Perez affair. Following a fire in Valladolid Akterfinal [Triumfmarsch Ur Aida] - Chalmersspex - Filip II he resisted calls to move his Court to Lisbonan act that could have curbed centralisation and bureaucracy domestically as well as relaxed rule in the Empire as a whole.
Instead, with the traditional Royal and Primacy seat of Toledo now essentially obsolete, he moved his Court to the Castilian stronghold of Madrid. The works, which lasted from untilwere done by tradesmen that came from the NetherlandsItalyand France. King Philip II ruled at a critical turning point in European history toward modernity whereas his father Charles V had been forced to an itinerant rule as a medieval king. He mainly directed state affairs, even when not at Court. Indeed, when his health began failing, he worked from his quarters at the Palace-Monastery-Pantheon of El Escorial Akterfinal [Triumfmarsch Ur Aida] - Chalmersspex - Filip II he had built ina palace built as a monument to Spain's role as a center of the Christian world.
But Philip did not enjoy the supremacy that King Louis XIV of France would in the next century, nor was such a rule necessarily possible at his time. The inefficiencies of the Spanish state and the restrictively regulated Akterfinal [Triumfmarsch Ur Aida] - Chalmersspex - Filip II under his rule were common to many contemporary countries. Further, the dispersal of the Moriscos from Granada — motivated by the fear they might support a Muslim Akterfinal [Triumfmarsch Ur Aida] - Chalmersspex - Filip II — had serious negative effects on the economy [ citation needed ]particularly in that region.
Philip's foreign policies were determined by a combination of Catholic fervour and dynastic objectives. He considered himself the chief defender of Catholic Europe, both against the Ottoman Turks and against the forces of the Protestant Reformation. He never relented from his fight against heresydefending the Catholic faith and limiting freedom of worship within his territories.
Following the Revolt of the Netherlands inPhilip waged a campaign against Dutch heresy and secession. This series of conflicts lasted for the rest of his life. Philip's constant involvement in European wars took a significant toll on the treasury and caused economic difficulties for the Crown and even bankruptcies.
Inthe English defeated Philip's Spanish Armadathwarting his planned invasion of the country to reinstate Catholicism. But war with England continued for the next sixteen years, in a complex series of struggles that included France, Ireland and the main battle zone, the Low Countries.
It would not end until all the leading protagonists, including himself, had died. Earlier, however, after several setbacks in his Cuando Pasará - El Reencuentro - 15 Años Despues. and especially that of his father, Philip did achieve a decisive victory against the Turks at the Lepanto inwith Akterfinal [Triumfmarsch Ur Aida] - Chalmersspex - Filip II allied fleet of the Holy Leaguewhich he had put under the command of his illegitimate brother, John of Austria.
He also successfully secured his succession to the throne of Portugal. These surveys helped the Spanish monarchy to govern these overseas conquests more effectively.
The date of Charles' abdication of the throne of Sicily is uncertain, but Philip was invested with this kingdom officially "Sicily and Jerusalem" on 18 November by Julius. According to Philip II, he was doing it for the benefit of the Church. I have reported to your Highness what has been happening here, and how far the Pope is going in his fury and vain imaginings. His Majesty could not do otherwise than have a care for his reputation and dominions.
I am sure your Highness will have had more recent news from the Duke of Alva, who has taken the field with an excellent army and has penetrated so far into the Pope's territory that his cavalry is raiding up to ten miles from Rome, where there is such panic that the population would have run away had not the gates been closed. The Pope has fallen ill with rage, and was struggling with a fever on the 16th of this month.
The two Carafa brothers, the Cardinal and Count Montorio, do not agree, and they and Piero Strozzi are not on as good terms as they were in the past. They would like to discuss peace. The best thing would be for the Pope to die, for he is the poison at the root of all this trouble and more which may occur. His Majesty's intention is only to wrest the knife from this madman's hand and make him return to a sense of his dignity, acting like the protector of the Apostolic Seein whose name, and that of the College of Cardinalshis Majesty has publicly proclaimed that he has seized all he is occupying.
The Pope is now sending again to the potentates of Italy for help. I hope he will gain as little thereby as he has done in the past, and that the French will calm down. May God give us peace in the end, as their Majesties desire and deserve! Philip Dok - Taste! the Spanish kingdoms into the final phase of the Italian Night City Journey (Cassady Locke Remix) - Haldo Feat.
Loryn - Night City Journey. The Spanish army decisively defeated the French at St. Quentin in and at Gravelines in
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