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The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, film, different types of music, economic, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe. Because of the great number of perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture. Bochmann includes: . Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive realisations". In this definition, Western culture is the set of literaryscientificpoliticalartistic and philosophical principles which set it apart from other civilizations.
Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon. The Nobel Prize laureate in Literature Thomas Stearns Eliot in his book Notes Towards the Definition of Culturecredited the prominent Christian influence upon the European culture:  "It is in Christianity that our arts have developed; it is in Christianity that the laws of Europe have--until recently--been rooted.
Surviving European prehistoric art mainly comprises sculpture and rock art. At the beginning of the Mesolithic in Europe figurative sculpture greatly reduced, and remained a less common element in art than relief decoration of practical objects until the Roman period, despite some works such as the Gundestrup cauldron from the European Iron Age and the Bronze Age Trundholm sun chariot.
The oldest European cave art dates back 40, [ clarification needed ] and can be found in the El Castillo Cave in Spain, but cave art exists across the continent.
Rock painting was also performed on cliff faces, but fewer of those paintings have survived because of erosion. One well-known example is the rock paintings of Astuvansalmi in the Saimaa area of Finland. The Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin forms a distinct group with the human figure the main focus, often seen in large groups, with battles, dancing and hunting all represented, as well as other activities and details such Coney Island - Herb Alpert & The T.
J. B.* - Coney Island clothing. The figures are generally rather sketchily depicted in thin paint, with the relationships between the groups of humans and animals more carefully depicted than individual figures.
Prehistoric Celtic Kop Kop Kop - Various - Kaikkien Aikojen Paras Joululevy 4 is another distinct grouping from much of Iron Age Europe and survives mainly in the form of high-status metalwork skillfully decorated with complex, elegant and mostly abstract designs, often using curving and spiral forms. Full-length human figures of any size are so rare that their absence may represent a religious taboo.
As the Romans conquered Celtic territories the style vanished, except in the British Isleswhere it influenced the Insular style of the Early Middle Ages. Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealised depictions of the human body, in which largely nude male figures were generally the focus of innovation.
The rate of stylistic development between about and BC was remarkable by ancient standards, and in surviving works is best seen in Ancient Greek sculpture. There were important innovations in painting, which have to be essentially reconstructed due to the lack of original survivals of quality, other than the distinct field of painted pottery.
Black-figure pottery and the subsequent red-figure pottery are famous and influential examples of the Ubern See - Various - Music From The Heart Of Europe Greek decorative arts. Roman art was influenced by Greece and can in part be taken as a descendant of ancient Greek painting and sculpture, but was also strongly influenced by the more local Etruscan art of Italy.
Sculpture was perhaps considered as the highest form of art by Romans, but figure painting was also very highly regarded. Roman sculpture is primarily portraiture derived from the upper classes of society as well as depictions of the gods.
However, Roman painting does Ubern See - Various - Music From The Heart Of Europe important unique characteristics. Among surviving Roman paintings are wall paintings, many from villas in Campaniain Ubern See - Various - Music From The Heart Of Europe Italy, especially at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Such painting can be grouped into four main "styles" or periods and may contain the first examples of trompe-l'oeilpseudo-perspective, and pure landscape.
Early Christian art grew out of Roman popular, and later Imperial, art and adapted its iconography from these sources. Medieval art can be broadly categorised into the Byzantine art of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the Burn - Various - Neurot Recordings I art that emerged in Western Europe over the same period.
Byzantine art was strongly influenced by its classical heritage, but distinguished itself by the development of a new, abstract, aesthetic, marked by anti-naturalism and a favour for symbolism.
The subject matter of monumental Byzantine art was primarily religious and imperial: the two themes are often combined, Ubern See - Various - Music From The Heart Of Europe in the portraits of later Byzantine emperors that decorated the interior of the sixth-century church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. However, the Byzantines inherited the Early Christian distrust of monumental sculpture in religious art, and produced only reliefsof The Tenants Of Balthazars Castle - 3 Dreams very few survivals are anything like life-size, in sharp contrast to the medieval art of the West, where monumental sculpture revived from Carolingian art onwards.
Small ivories were also mostly in relief. The so-called "minor arts" were very important in Byzantine art and luxury items, including ivories carved in relief as formal presentation Consular diptychs or caskets such as the Veroli caskethardstone carvingsenamelsglassjewelry, metalwork, and figured silks were produced in large quantities throughout the Byzantine era. Migration Period art includes the art of the Germanic tribes on the continent, as well the start of the distinct Insular art or Hiberno-Saxon art of the Anglo-Saxon and Celtic fusion in the British Isles.
It covers many different styles of art including the polychrome style and the Scythian and Germanic animal style. After ChristianizationMigration Period art developed into various schools of Early Medieval art in Western Europe which are normally classified by region, such as Anglo-Saxon art and Carolingian artbefore the continent-wide styles of Romanesque art and finally Gothic art developed. Romanesque art Ubern See - Various - Music From The Heart Of Europe Gothic art dominated Western and Central Europe from approximately AD to the rise of the Renaissance style in the 15th century or later, depending on region.
The Romanesque style was greatly influenced by Byzantine and Insular art. Religious art, such as church sculpture and decorated manuscripts, was particularly prominent. Art of the period was characterised by a very vigorous style in both sculpture and painting.
Colours tended to be very striking and mostly primary. Compositions usually had little depth, and needed to be flexible to be squeezed into the shapes of historiated initialscolumn capitals, and church tympanums. Figures often varied in size in relation to their importance, and landscape backgrounds, if attempted at all, were closer to abstract decorations than realism.
Gothic art developed from Romanesque art in Northern France the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.
In the late 14th century, the sophisticated court style of International Gothic developed, which continued to evolve until the late 15th century. In many areas, especially England and Germany, Late Gothic art continued well into the 16th century. Gothic art was often typological in nature, showing the stories of the New Testament and the Old Testament side by side. Saints' lives were often depicted.
Images of the Virgin Mary changed from the Byzantine iconic Ubern See - Various - Music From The Heart Of Europe to a Ubern See - Various - Music From The Heart Of Europe human and affectionate mother, often showing the refined manners of a courtly lady. Secular art came into its own during the gothic period alongside the creation of a bourgeois class who could afford to patronise the arts and commission works.
Increased literacy and a growing body of secular vernacular literature encouraged the representation of secular themes in art. With the growth of cities, trade guilds were formed and artists were often required to be members of a painters' guild —as a result, because of better record keeping, more artists are known to us by name in this period than any previous.
Renaissance art emerged as a distinct style in northern Italy from aroundin parallel with developments which occurred in philosophyliteraturemusic and science. It took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquitybut was also influenced by the art of Northern Europe and contemporary scientific knowledge. Renaissance artists painted a wide variety of themes. Religious altarpiecesfresco cycles, and small works for private devotion were very popular.
Painters in both Italy and northern Europe frequently turned to Jacobus de Voragine 's Golden Legenda highly influential source book for the lives of saints that had already had a strong influence on Medieval artists. Interest in classical antiquity and Renaissance humanism also resulted in many Mythological and history paintings. Decorative ornamentoften used in painted architectural elements, was especially influenced by Yaoundé - Franco DAndrea - Live In Perugia Roman motifs.
Techniques characteristic of Renaissance art include the use of proportion and linear perspective ; foreshorteningto create an illusion of depth; sfumatoa technique of softening of sharp outlines by subtle blending of tones to give the illusion of depth or three-dimensionality; and chiaroscurothe effect of using a strong contrast between light and dark to give the illusion of depth or three-dimensionality.
Renaissance Classicism spawned two different movements— Mannerism and the Baroque. Mannerism, a reaction against the idealist perfection of Classicism, employed distortion of light and spatial frameworks in order to emphasise the emotional content of a painting and the emotions of the painter.
Where High Renaissance art emphasises proportion, balance, and ideal beauty, Mannerism exaggerates such qualities, often resulting in compositions that are asymmetrical or unnaturally elegant. The style is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial as opposed to naturalistic qualities. It favours compositional tension and instability rather than the balance and clarity of earlier Renaissance painting. In contrast, Baroque art took the representationalism of the Renaissance to new heights, emphasizing detail, movement, lighting, and drama.
Baroque art is Ubern See - Various - Music From The Heart Of Europe seen as part of the Counter-Reformation — the revival of spiritual life in the Roman Catholic Church. Religious and political themes are widely explored within the Baroque artistic context, and both paintings and sculptures are characterised by a strong element of drama, emotion and theatricality. Baroque art was particularly ornate and elaborate in nature, often using rich, warm colours with dark undertones.
Dutch Golden Age painting is a distinct subset of Baroque, leading to the development of secular genres such as still lifegenre paintings of everyday scenes, and landscape painting. By the 18th century Baroque art had developed into the Rococo in France. Rococo art was even more elaborate than the Baroque, but it was less serious and more playful. The artistic movement no longer placed an emphasis on politics and religion, focusing instead on lighter themes such as romance, Synthétienniseur - Riff Hunter - Riff Hunter, and appreciation of nature.
Furthermore, it sought inspiration from the artistic forms and ornamentation of Far Eastern Asiaresulting in the rise in favour of porcelain figurines and chinoiserie in general. Rococo soon fell out of favour, being seen by Symphony Of Angels - Lana Lane - Storybook: Tales From Europe and Japan (DVD) as a gaudy and superficial movement emphasizing aesthetics over meaning.
Neoclassicism began in the 18th century as counter movement opposing the Rococo. It desired for a return to the simplicity, order and 'purism' of classical antiquity, especially ancient Greece and Rome. Neoclassicism was the artistic component of the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment.
Neoclassicism had become widespread in Europe throughout the 18th century, especially in the United Kingdom. In many ways Neoclassicism can be seen as a political movement as well as an artistic and cultural one.
Neoclassical art places an emphasis on order, symmetry and classical simplicity; common themes in Neoclassical art include courage and war, as were commonly explored in ancient Greek and Roman art. IngresCanovaand Jacques-Louis David are among the best-known neoclassicists. Just as Mannerism rejected Classicism, Romanticism rejected the aesthetic of the Neoclassicists, specifically the highly objective and ordered nature of Neoclassicism, favouring instead a more individual and emotional approach to the arts.
Emphasis was placed on nature, especially when aiming to portray the power and beauty of the natural world, and emotions. Romantic art often used colours in order to express feelings and emotion. Romantic art was inspitred by ancient Greek and Roman art and mythology, but also takes much of its aesthetic qualities from medievalism and Gothicismas well as later mythology and folklore.
In response to these changes caused by Industrialisationthe movement of Realism emerged, which sought to accurately portray the conditions and hardships of the poor in the hopes of changing society. In contrast with Romanticism, which was essentially optimistic about mankind, Realism offered a stark vision of poverty and despair.
While Romanticism glorified nature, Realism portrayed life in the depths of an urban wasteland. Like Romanticism, Realism was a literary as well as an artistic movement. Other contemporary movements were more Historicist in nature, such as the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhoodwho attempted to return art to its state of "purity" prior to Raphaeland the Arts and Crafts Movementwhich reacted against the impersonality of mass-produced goods and advocated a return to medieval craftsmanship.
This broad era encompasses early musicwhich generally comprises Medieval music — and Renaissance music —but sometimes includes Baroque music — This era includes the common practice period from approximately toas well as the modernist and postmodernist styles that emerged after and which continue to the present day.
Folk music : Europe has a wide and diverse range of indigenous music, sharing common features in rural, travelling or maritime communities.
Folk music is embedded in an unwritten, oral tradition, but was increasingly transcribed from the nineteenth century onwards. Many classical composers used folk melodies, and folk has influenced some popular music in Europe. See Summertime - Jazzperiment - First Invitation list of European folk musics. Main articles : List of European television stations.
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