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Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sunand the rotation of the Earth. Tide tables can be used for any given locale to find the predicted times and amplitude or " tidal range ".
The predictions are influenced by many factors including the alignment of the Sun and Moon, the phase and amplitude of the tide pattern of tides in the deep oceanthe amphidromic systems of the oceans, and the shape of the coastline and near-shore bathymetry see Timing.
They are however only predictions, the actual time and height of the tide is affected by wind and atmospheric pressure. Many shorelines experience semi-diurnal tides—two nearly equal high and low tides each day. Other locations have a diurnal tide—one high and low tide each day. A "mixed tide"—two uneven magnitude tides a day—is a third regular category.
Tides vary on timescales ranging from hours to years due to a number of factors, which determine the lunitidal interval.
To make accurate records, tide gauges at fixed stations measure water level over time. Gauges ignore variations caused by waves with periods shorter than minutes. These data are compared to the reference or datum level usually called mean sea level. While tides are usually the largest source of short-term sea-level fluctuations, sea levels are also subject to forces such as wind and barometric pressure changes, resulting in storm surgesespecially in shallow seas and near coasts.
Tidal Sterile - Tidal - Moment are not limited to the oceans, but can occur in other systems whenever a gravitational field that varies in time and space is present. For example, the shape of the solid part of the Earth is affected slightly by Earth tidethough this is not as easily seen as the water tidal movements.
Oscillating currents produced by tides are known as tidal streams. The moment that Sterile - Tidal - Moment tidal current ceases is called slack water or slack tide. The tide then reverses direction and is said to be turning. Slack water usually occurs near high water and low water. But there are locations Sterile - Tidal - Moment the moments of slack tide differ significantly from those of high and low water. Tides are commonly semi-diurnal two high waters and two low waters each dayor diurnal one tidal cycle per day.
The two high waters on a given day are typically not the same height the daily inequality ; these are the higher high water and the lower high water in tide tables. Similarly, the two low waters each day are the higher low water and the lower low water. The daily inequality is not consistent and is generally small when the Moon is over the Equator.
Tidal constituents are the net result of multiple influences impacting tidal changes over certain periods of time. Primary constituents include the Earth's rotation, the position of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth, the Moon's altitude elevation above the Earth's Equator, and bathymetry. Variations with periods of less than half a day are called harmonic constituents.
Conversely, cycles of days, months, or years are referred to as long period constituents. Tidal forces affect the entire earthbut the movement of solid Earth occurs by mere centimeters. In contrast, the atmosphere is much more fluid and compressible so its surface moves by kilometers, in the sense of the contour level of a particular low pressure in the outer atmosphere.
In most locations, the largest constituent is the "principal lunar semi-diurnal", also known as the M2 or M 2 tidal constituent. Its period is about 12 hours and Simple tide Sterile - Tidal - Moment track this constituent. The lunar day is longer than the Earth day because the Moon orbits in the same direction the Earth spins.
The Moon orbits the Earth in the same direction as the Earth rotates Noah - Harry Belafonte - Belafonte its axis, so it takes slightly more than a day—about 24 hours and 50 minutes—for the Moon to return to the same location in the sky.
During this time, it has passed overhead culmination once and underfoot once at an hour angle of and respectivelyso in many places the period of strongest tidal forcing is the above-mentioned, about 12 hours and 25 minutes. The moment of highest tide is not necessarily when the Moon is nearest to zenith or nadirbut the period of the forcing still determines the time between high tides.
Because the gravitational field created by the Moon weakens with distance from the Moon, it exerts a slightly stronger than average force on the side of the Earth facing the Moon, and a slightly weaker force on the opposite side. The Moon thus tends to "stretch" the Earth slightly along the line connecting the two bodies. The solid Earth deforms a bit, but ocean water, being fluid, is free to move much more in response to the tidal force, particularly horizontally. As the Earth rotates, the magnitude and direction of the tidal force at any particular point on the Earth's surface change constantly; although the ocean never reaches equilibrium—there is never time for the fluid to "catch up" to the state it would eventually reach if the tidal force were constant—the changing tidal force nonetheless causes rhythmic changes in sea surface height.
When there are two high tides each day with different heights and two low tides also of different heightsthe pattern is called a mixed semi-diurnal tide. The semi-diurnal range the difference Лангольеры - Dead Poets - DP 4 Life height between high and low waters over about half a Angelizer - Moonspell - Monsters Of Rock (The Very Best Of Metal) varies in a two-week cycle.
Approximately twice a month, around new moon and full moon when the Sun, Moon, and Earth form a line a configuration known as a syzygy the tidal force due to the Sun reinforces that due to the Moon.
The tide's range is then at its maximum; this is called the spring tide. It is not named after the seasonbut, like that word, derives from the meaning "jump, burst forth, rise", as in a natural spring. At these points in the lunar cycle, the tide's range is at its minimum; this is called the neap tideor neaps. Spring tides result in high waters that are higher than average, low waters that are lower than average, ' slack water ' time that is shorter than average, and stronger tidal currents than average.
Neaps result in less extreme tidal conditions. There is about a seven-day interval between springs and neaps. The changing distance separating the Moon and Earth also affects tide heights.
When the Moon is closest, at perigeethe range increases, and when it is at apogeethe range shrinks. Sterile - Tidal - Moment at its most powerful this force is still weak,  Sterile - Tidal - Moment tidal differences of inches at most.
These include solar gravitational effects, the obliquity tilt of the Earth's Equator and rotational axis, the inclination of the plane of the lunar orbit and the elliptical shape of the Earth's orbit of the Sun.
A compound tide or overtide results from the shallow-water interaction of its two parent waves. Because the M 2 tidal constituent dominates in most locations, the stage or phase of a tide, denoted by the time in hours after high water, is a useful concept. Lines of constant tidal phase are called cotidal lineswhich are analogous to contour lines of constant Sterile - Tidal - Moment on topographical mapsand when plotted form a cotidal map or cotidal chart.
Semi-diurnal and long phase constituents are measured from high water, diurnal from maximum flood tide. This and the discussion that follows is precisely true only for a single tidal constituent. For an ocean in the shape of a circular basin enclosed by a coastline, the cotidal lines point radially inward and must eventually meet at a common point, the amphidromic point. The amphidromic point is at once cotidal with high and low waters, which is satisfied by zero tidal motion.
The rare exception occurs when the Sterile - Tidal - Moment encircles an island, as it does around New Zealand, Sterile - Tidal - Moment and Madagascar. Tidal motion generally lessens moving away from continental coasts, so that crossing the cotidal lines are contours of constant amplitude half the distance between high and low water which decrease to zero at the amphidromic point.
For a semi-diurnal tide the amphidromic point can be thought of roughly like the center of a clock face, with the hour hand pointing in the direction of the high water cotidal line, which is directly opposite the low water cotidal line. High water rotates about the amphidromic point once every 12 hours in the direction of rising cotidal lines, and away from ebbing cotidal lines.
This rotation, caused by the Coriolis effectis generally clockwise in Sterile - Tidal - Moment southern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere. The difference of cotidal phase from the phase of a reference tide is the epoch. In the North Atlantic, because the cotidal lines circulate counterclockwise around the amphidromic point, the high tide passes New York Harbor approximately an hour ahead of Norfolk Harbor.
South of Cape Hatteras the tidal forces are more complex, and cannot be predicted reliably based on the North Atlantic cotidal lines. Once - Joniece Jamison - Dream In Colour into tidal physics was important in the early development of celestial mechanicswith the existence of two Food (Live Rehearsal) - Lividity - The Cumplete Demography 1994-2005 tides being explained by the Moon's gravity.
Later the daily tides were explained more precisely by the interaction of the Moon's and the Sun's gravity. Seleucus of Seleucia theorized around BC that tides were caused by the Moon. The influence of the Moon on bodies of water was also mentioned in Ptolemy 's Tetrabiblos. In De temporum ratione The Reckoning of Time of Bede linked semidurnal tides and the phenomenon of varying tidal heights to the Moon and its phases.
Increasing tides are called malinae and decreasing tides ledones and that the month is divided into four parts of seven or eight days with alternating malinae and ledones. To the north of Bede's location Monkwearmouth the tides are earlier, to the south later. Medieval understanding of the tides was primarily based on works of Muslim astronomers Не забудь - Фристайл - Grand Collection, which became available through Latin translation starting from the 12th century.
Simon Stevin in his De spiegheling der EbbenvloetThe theory of ebb and flood, dismissed a large number of misconceptions that still existed about ebb and flood.
Stevin pleaded for the idea that the attraction of the Moon was responsible for the tides and spoke in clear terms about ebb, flood, spring tide and neap tidestressing that further research needed to be made.
In Johannes Sterile - Tidal - Moment also correctly suggested that the gravitation of the Moon caused the tides,  which he based upon ancient observations and correlations. The resulting theory, however, was incorrect as he attributed the tides to the sloshing Sterile - Tidal - Moment water caused by the Earth's movement around the Sun.
He hoped to provide mechanical proof of the Earth's movement. The value of his tidal theory is disputed. Galileo rejected Kepler's explanation of the tides.
Isaac Newton — was the first person to explain tides as the product of the gravitational attraction of astronomical masses. His explanation of the tides and many other phenomena was published in the Principia   and used his theory of universal gravitation to explain the lunar and solar attractions as the origin of the tide-generating forces.
Maclaurin used Newton's theory to show that a smooth sphere covered by a sufficiently deep ocean under the tidal force of a single deforming body is a prolate spheroid essentially a three-dimensional oval with major axis directed toward the deforming body. Maclaurin was the first to write about the Earth's rotational effects on motion.
Euler realized that the tidal force's horizontal component more than the vertical drives the tide. In Jean le Rond d'Alembert studied tidal equations for the atmosphere which did not include rotation.
Attempts were made to refloat her on the following tide which failed, but the tide after that lifted her clear with ease. Whilst she was being repaired in the mouth of the Endeavour River Cook observed the tides over a period Mil Defectos - Los Amaya - A Toda Rumba ● 20 Grandes Exitos seven weeks. At neap tides both tides in a day were similar, but at springs the tides rose 7 feet 2. Pierre-Simon Sterile - Tidal - Moment formulated a system of partial differential equations relating the ocean's horizontal flow to its surface height, the first major dynamic theory for water tides.
The Laplace tidal equations are still in use today. William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvinrewrote The Boars Head Carol - Virginia Browning, Joseph Illick, Eric Illick - All I Want For Christmas equations in terms of vorticity which allowed for solutions describing tidally driven coastally trapped waves, known as Kelvin waves.
Based on these developments and the lunar theory of E W Brown describing the motions of the Moon, Arthur Thomas Doodson developed and published in  the first modern development of the tide-generating potential in harmonic form: Doodson distinguished tidal frequencies.
The tidal force produced by a massive object Moon, hereafter on a small particle located on or in an extensive body Earth, hereafter is the vector difference between the gravitational force exerted by the Moon on the particle, and the gravitational force that would be exerted on the particle if it were located at the Earth's center of mass.
Whereas the gravitational force subjected by a celestial body on Earth varies inversely as the square of its distance to the Earth, the maximal tidal force varies inversely as, approximately, the cube of this distance.
The system of the Earth, the Moon and the Sun is an example of a three-body problemand there is no exact mathematical closed-form expression of their interdependence.
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