Covey to provide a commentary. Why is it that managers are typically running out of time while their subordinates are typically running out of work? Here we shall explore the meaning of management time as it relates to the interaction between managers and their bosses, their peers, and their subordinates.
Boss-imposed time —used to accomplish those activities that the boss requires and that the manager cannot disregard without direct and swift penalty. System-imposed time —used to accommodate requests from peers for active support. Neglecting these requests will also result in penalties, though not always as direct or swift. Self-imposed time —used to do those things that the manager originates or agrees to do.
A certain portion of this kind of time, however, will be taken by subordinates and is called subordinate-imposed time. To accommodate those demands, managers need to control the timing and the content of what they do. Since what their bosses and the system impose on them are subject to penalty, managers cannot tamper with those requirements. Thus their self-imposed time becomes their major area of concern. Managers should try to increase the discretionary component of their self-imposed time by minimizing or doing away with the subordinate component.
They will then use the added increment to get better control over their boss-imposed and system-imposed activities. Hence we shall use the monkey-on-the-back metaphor Monkey On My Back (Vocals) - C.E.B. - Get The Point examine how subordinate-imposed time comes into being and what the superior can do about it. Let us imagine that a manager is walking down the hall and that he notices one of his subordinates, Jones, coming his way.
You see…. Namely, the manager knows a enough to get involved, but b not enough to make 1.Mov.: Allegro - Mozart*, Camerata Academica Del Mozarteum Di Salisburgo*, Géza Anda - Concerto N.2 on-the-spot decision expected of him. Let us analyze what just happened. After they parted, on whose back was it?
Subordinate-imposed time begins the moment a monkey successfully leaps from the back of a subordinate to the back of his or her superior and does not end until the monkey is returned to its proper owner for care and feeding.
In accepting the monkey, the manager has voluntarily assumed a position Elephant Micah - Elephant Micah And The Loud Guitars to his subordinate. That is, he has allowed Jones to make him her subordinate by doing two things a subordinate is generally expected to do for a boss—the manager has accepted a responsibility from his subordinate, and the manager has promised her a progress report.
Send me a memo on that. Let us analyze this one. Watch that monkey. Johnson dutifully writes the requested memo and drops it in his out-basket. Shortly thereafter, the manager plucks it from his in-basket and reads it. Whose move is it now? If he does not make that move soon, he will get a follow-up memo from the subordinate. This is another form of supervision.
Or suppose once again that at a meeting with a third subordinate, Smith, the manager agrees to provide all the necessary backing for a public relations proposal he has just asked Smith to develop.
Youre The Top - Stacey Kent - The Boy Next Door let us analyze this. But for how long? Who will be checking up on whom? Wheel spinning and bottlenecking are well on their way again. A fourth subordinate, Reed, has just been transferred from another part of the company so that he can launch and eventually manage a newly created business Monkey On My Back (Vocals) - C.E.B. - Get The Point.
Let us analyze this one, too. The subordinate has the new job by formal assignment and the full responsibility by formal delegationbut the manager has the next move. Until he makes it, he will have the monkey, and the subordinate will be immobilized. Why does all of this happen? Because in each instance the manager and the subordinate assume at the outset, wittingly or unwittingly, that the matter under consideration is a joint problem. The monkey in each case begins its career astride both their backs.
All it has to do is move the wrong leg, and—presto! The manager is thus left with another acquisition for his menagerie.
Of course, monkeys can be trained not to move the wrong leg. But it is easier to prevent them from straddling backs in the first place.
In a five-day week, the manager will have picked up 60 screaming monkeys—far too many to do anything about them individually. To control those tasks, he needs discretionary time that is in turn denied him when he is preoccupied with all these monkeys.
The manager is caught in a vicious circle. But time is a-wasting an understatement. At 7 pm, he drives home, intending with firm resolve to return to the office tomorrow to get caught up over the weekend. He returns bright and early the next day only to see, on the nearest green of the Monkey On My Back (Vocals) - C.E.B. - Get The Point course across from his office window, a foursome. Guess who?
That does it. He now knows who is really working for whom. In short, he now sees, with the clarity of a revelation on a mountaintop, that the more he gets caught up, the more he will fall behind.
The manager can now see, with the clarity of a revelation on a mountaintop, that the more he Invention 13 In A Minor, BWV 784 - Bach* / Glenn Gould - The Two And Three Part Inventions (Complete caught up, the more he will fall behind.
He leaves the office with the speed of a person running away from a plague. His plan? This is one of the Monkey On My Back (Vocals) - C.E.B.
- Get The Point varieties of discretionary time. Sunday night he enjoys ten hours of sweet, untroubled slumber, because he has clear-cut plans for Monday.
He is going to get rid of his subordinate-imposed time. The manager will also have plenty of discretionary time left over for getting control of the timing and the content not only of his boss-imposed time but also of his system-imposed time.
It may take months, but compared with the way things have been, the rewards will be enormous. His ultimate objective is to manage his time. The manager returns to the office Monday morning just late enough so that his four subordinates have collected outside his office waiting to see him about their monkeys.
He calls them in one by one. For certain monkeys, that will take some doing. For the next 24 hours, the subordinate will not be waiting for the manager; instead, the manager will be waiting for the subordinate. When the subordinate with the monkey on his or her back and the manager meet at the appointed hour the next day, the Monkey On My Back (Vocals) - C.E.B. - Get The Point explains the ground rules in words to this effect:. The instant your problem becomes mine, you no longer have a problem.
You may ask my help at any appointed time, and we will make a joint determination of what the next move will be and which of us will make it.
I will not make any move alone. His monkeys are gone. They will return—but by appointment only. His calendar will assure this. What we have been driving at in this monkey-on-the-back analogy is that managers can transfer initiative back to their subordinates and keep it there.
We have tried to highlight a truism as obvious as it is subtle: namely, before developing initiative in subordinates, the manager must see to it that they have the initiative.
Once the manager takes it back, he will no longer have it and he can kiss his discretionary time good-bye. It will all revert to subordinate-imposed time. Nor can the manager and the subordinate effectively have the same initiative at the same time. There are five degrees of initiative that the manager can exercise in relation to the boss and to the system:. Clearly, the manager should be professional enough not to indulge in initiatives 1 and 2 in relation either to the boss or to the system.
A manager who uses initiative 1 has no control over either the timing or the content of boss-imposed or system-imposed time and thereby forfeits any right to complain about what he or she is told to do or when. The manager who uses initiative 2 has control over the timing but not over the content.
Initiatives 3, 4, and 5 leave the manager in control of both, with the greatest amount of control being Monkey On My Back (Vocals) - C.E.B. - Get The Point at level 5. Monkeys should be fed or shot. Otherwise, they will starve to death, and the manager will waste valuable time on postmortems or attempted resurrections. The monkey population should be kept below the maximum number the manager has time to feed.
Subordinates will find time to work as many monkeys as he or she finds time to feed, but no more. Monkeys should be fed by appointment only. The manager should not have to hunt down starving monkeys and feed them on a catch-as-catch-can basis. Monkeys should be fed face-to-face or by telephone, but never by mail.
Documentation may add to the feeding process, but it cannot take the place of feeding. Every monkey should have an assigned next feeding time and degree of initiative. These may be revised at any time by mutual consent but never allowed to become vague or indefinite. When Bill Oncken wrote this article inmanagers were in a terrible bind. They were desperate for a way to free up their time, but command and control was the status quo.
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