A qubit is a two-state or two-level quantum-mechanical systemone of the simplest quantum systems displaying the peculiarity of quantum mechanics.
Examples include: the spin of Les Sultans - Les Filles / LAmour SEn Va electron in which the two levels can be taken as spin up and spin down; or the polarization of a single photon in which the two states can be taken L.A.
Q-BIT - The Time be the vertical polarization and the horizontal polarization. In a classical system, a bit would have to be in one state or the other. The coining of the term qubit is attributed to Benjamin Schumacher. The paper describes a way of compressing states emitted by a quantum source of information so that they require fewer physical resources to store.
This procedure is now known as Schumacher compression. A binary digitcharacterized as 0 and 1, is used to represent information in classical computers. A binary digit can represent up to one bit of Shannon informationwhere a bit is the basic unit of information.
However, in this article, the word bit is synonymous with binary digit. In classical computer technologies, a processed bit is implemented by one of two levels of low DC voltageand whilst switching from one of these two levels to the other, a so-called forbidden zone must be passed as fast as possible, as electrical voltage cannot change from one level to another instantaneously. There are two possible outcomes for the measurement of a qubit—usually taken to have the value "0" and "1", like a bit or binary digit.
It is possible to fully encode one bit in one qubit. However, a qubit can hold more information, e. In quantum mechanics, the general quantum state of a qubit can be L.A. Q-BIT - The Time by a linear superposition of its two orthonormal basis states or basis vectors.
Qubit basis states can also be combined to form product basis states. In general, n qubits are represented by a superposition state vector in 2 n dimensional Hilbert space. A pure qubit state is a coherent superposition of the basis states. In other words, superposition means that there is no way, even in principle, to tell which of the two possible states forming the superposition state actually pertains. This means, with a suitable change of coordinates, one can eliminate one of the degrees L.A.
Q-BIT - The Time freedom. One possible choice is that of Hopf coordinates :. The possible quantum states for a single qubit can be visualised using a Bloch sphere see diagram. This particular choice of the polar axis is arbitrary, however. The rest of the surface of the Bloch sphere is inaccessible to a classical bit, but a pure qubit state can be represented by any point on the surface. In the classical limita qubit, which can have quantum states anywhere on the Bloch sphere, reduces to the classical bit, which can be found only at either poles.
The surface of the Bloch CEst Gâté - Bana C4 - Arrêt De Jeu is a two-dimensional spacewhich represents the state space of the pure qubit states. Coherence is essential for a qubit to be in a superposition state.
With interactions and decoherenceit is possible to put the qubit in a mixed statea statistical combination or incoherent mixture of different L.A. Q-BIT - The Time states. Mixed states can be represented by points inside Super Trouper - Various - Dziewczyna 6 Bloch sphere or L.A. Q-BIT - The Time the Bloch ball. An important distinguishing feature between qubits and classical bits is that multiple qubits can exhibit quantum entanglement.
Quantum entanglement is a nonlocal property of two or more qubits that allows a set of qubits to express higher correlation than is possible in classical systems. The simplest system to display quantum entanglement is the system of two qubits.
Imagine that these two entangled qubits are separated, with one each given to Alice and Bob. Because of the qubits' entanglement, Bob must now get exactly the same measurement as Alice. Controlled gates act on 2 or more qubits, where one or more qubits act as a control for some specified operation.
Quantum entanglement also allows multiple states such as the Bell state mentioned above to be acted on simultaneously, unlike classical bits that can only have one value at a time. Entanglement is a necessary ingredient of any quantum computation that cannot be done efficiently on a classical computer. Many of the successes of quantum computation and communication, such as quantum teleportation and superdense codingmake use of entanglement, suggesting that entanglement is a resource that is unique to quantum computation.
A number of qubits taken together is a qubit register. Quantum computers perform calculations by manipulating qubits within a register.
A qubyte quantum byte is a collection of eight qubits. Similar to the qubit, the qutrit is the unit of quantum information that can be realized in suitable 3-level quantum systems. This is analogous to the unit of classical information trit of ternary computers.
Note, however, that not all 3-level quantum systems are qutrits. Any two-level quantum-mechanical system can be used as a qubit. Multilevel systems can be used as well, if they possess two states that can be effectively decoupled from the rest e.
There are various proposals. Several physical implementations that approximate two-level systems to various degrees were successfully realized. Similarly to a classical bit where the state of a transistor in a processor, the magnetization of a surface in a hard disk and the presence of current in a cable can all be used to represent bits in the same computer, an eventual quantum computer is likely to use various combinations of qubits in its design. The following is an incomplete list of physical implementations of qubits, and the choices of basis are by convention only.
In a paper entitled "Solid-state quantum memory using the 31 P nuclear spin", published in the October 23,issue of the journal Nature a team of scientists from the U. This event can be considered the first relatively consistent quantum data storage, a vital step towards the development of quantum computing.
Recently, a modification of similar systems using charged rather than neutral donors has dramatically extended this time, to 3 hours at very low temperatures and 39 minutes at room temperature. From L.A. Q-BIT - The Time , the free encyclopedia. This article is about the quantum computing unit. For other uses, see Qubit disambiguation. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand.
Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Schumacher Physical Review A. Bibcode : PhRvA. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. Cambridge University Press.
Bibcode : quant. Reviews of Modern Physics. Bibcode : RvMP Tanburn; E. Okada; N. Dattani Part L.A. Q-BIT - The Time The "deduc-reduc" method and its application to quantum factorization of numbers". Bibcode : arXivT. Physics Stack Exchange. Retrieved New Journal of Physics. Bibcode : NJPh IEEE Spectrum. Lucatto; et al. Physical Review B. Morton; et al.
Bibcode : Natur. Bibcode : Sci Nature Communications. Bibcode : NatCo Quantum information science. Quantum computing Qubit physical vs. Universal quantum simulator Deutsch—Jozsa algorithm Grover's algorithm Quantum Fourier transform Shor's algorithm Simon's problem Quantum phase estimation algorithm Quantum counting algorithm Quantum L.A.
Q-BIT - The Time Quantum algorithm for linear systems of L.A. Q-BIT - The Time Amplitude amplification. Quantum circuit Quantum logic gate One-way quantum computer cluster state Adiabatic quantum computation Topological quantum computer. Trapped ion quantum computer Optical lattice.
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