Label: Koka Media - KOK 2192 • Format: CD Album • Country: France • Genre: Electronic, Folk, World, & Country • Style: Korean Court Music
Korealocated on a large peninsula on the eastern coast of the Asian mainland, has been inhabited since Neolithic times. The first recognisable political state was Gojoseonwhich existed in the second half of the first millennium BCE. Silla, with significant Chinese aid, would eventually conquer all of the other Korean states and form the Unified Silla Kingdom which ruled until CE.
From the 10th century CE, the peninsula was ruled by the Goryeo kingdom until Korea's independence was brought to an end by the Mongol invasions of the 13th century CE. Close cultural and political ties were Ancient Korea (Solo Instruments - Korea) - Imade Saputra - Asia Vol 2. Japan / Korea / Mongolia with Chinaalbeit with significant periods of conflict between the two areas.
Japan was another trading partner and was also involved in Korean cultural exchange. Ancient Korea has provided many unique contributions to world culture including the invention of movable metal type printing, superb celadon ceramics, the exquisite gold crowns of Silla, the oldest astronomical observatory in Asia, fine gilt- bronze Buddhist figurines, stone pagodas, hanjithe most prized paper in the world, and the ondol underfloor heating system.
The Korean peninsula was inhabited from 10, BCE or even earlier by people who subsisted on hunting, fishing, and gathering. The earliest known settlements date to c. Megalithic structures from the 2nd millennium BCE still dot the landscape of Korea and number overDolmens were constructed of huge single stones and were likely used as tomb markers. Other types of burials take the form of stone-lined cist graves with precious goods such as amazonite jewellery being buried with the deceased.
Dwellings of this period are typically subterranean with a roof supported by poles and have a central hearth. Plastic People - The Music Asylum - Commit Thyself tend to be located on hillsides and sometimes enclosed within a wooden perimeter fence.
Archaeological finds include jewellery made from stone, bone and shell; chipped stone hand-axes; stone pestle and mortars; stone ploughs, sickles, and hoes; and obsidian or slate arrowheads. Subhead - Subhead 4 potteryespecially in the form of flat-bottomed brown bowls with incised decoration, shows a cultural link with communities in the Liaoning province and Liaodong peninsula of China.
Neolithic pottery and obsidian objects also indicate an early maritime trade with ancient Japan. Agriculture was first practised from the second millennium BCE and aided by the introduction of rice cultivation from China by BCE. The Korean Bronze Age covered the same period with the metal culture brought from Manchuria. The presence of fine bronze goods such as swords, bells, and mirrors in certain tombs along the Taedong River indicates a culture with a tribal elite.
Other common bronze items include slender daggers, spearheads, belt buckles, and fan-shaped axes. It was in this period that the first state was formed, Gojoseon.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the state was formed from the alliance of small fortified towns around the Daedong and Liao River basins perhaps from the 7th century BCE and more certainly from the 4th century BCE.
Although mentioned in the c. Gojoseon prospered due to agricultural improvements with iron tools introduced from China and plentiful natural resources like gold, silvercoppertin, and zinc. At this time the famous ondol underfloor heating system was invented and the first Korean grey stoneware produced.
However, Gojoseon was weakened by attacks from the neighbouring Yan state c. The Han were interested in natural resources such as salt and iron and they divided northern Korea into four commanderies directly administered by their central government.
These kingdoms benefitted from the sophisticated culture brought by refugees from the Ancient Korea (Solo Instruments - Korea) - Imade Saputra - Asia Vol 2. Japan / Korea / Mongolia Gojoseon and defeated Wiman Joseon states. The four states of the Three Kingdoms Period 57 BCE — CE were in constant rivalry and so they formed ever-changing alliances, one with another and with the Ancient Korea (Solo Instruments - Korea) - Imade Saputra - Asia Vol 2.
Japan / Korea / Mongolia dominant regional powers of China and Japan. Goguryeo, with its capital Oh My God - DJ Neil Armstrong - Original All Out King - AOK Part 6 Pyongyangparticularly prospered in the 5th century CE during the reign of Gwanggaeto the Greatwho lived up to his other title of 'broad expander of domain,' and permitted Goguryeo to dominate northern Korea, most of Manchuria, and a portion of Inner Mongolia.
Silla, meanwhile, with its capital at Geumseong Gyeongju flourished under the reign of king Beopheung r.
Gaya, squeezed between its more powerful neighbours in the south of the peninsula, never fully developed into a centralised kingdom. Baekje had done well in the late 4th century BCE under king Geunchogo and had formed its Nasty Violence - Various - Open Your Mind - Phylloxera Volume 2 at Hanseong modern Gwangju. An alliance with Silla between and CE brought some stability, but in CE at a battle at Gwansanseong Fortress modern Okcheon Baekje tried to reclaim territory it had lost to a Silla invasion and their 30,strong army was defeated and the Baekje king Seong killed.
The system of government of the three kingdoms was much as it would remain for the rest of the history of ancient Korea. A monarch ruled with the aid of senior administrative officials drawn from a landed aristocracy. Government appointed officials administered the provinces with the aid of local tribal leaders.
The majority of the population were landed peasantry, and the state extracted a tax from them which was usually payable in kind. The state could also oblige citizens to fight in the army or work on government projects such as building fortifications. At the very bottom of the social ladder were slaves typically prisoners of war or those in serious debt and criminals, who were forced to work on the estates of the aristocracy. Society was rigidly divided into social ranks, best epitomised by the Silla sacred bone rank system which was based on birth and dictated one's work possibilities, tax obligations, and even the clothes one could wear or the utensils one could use.
The in-fighting between the Korean states was finally settled by outside intervention from China. Goguryeo had successfully rebuffed three invasions from Sui China in the 7th century CE, and then the Tang Sleepin Man - John Entwistle - Too Late The Hero CE attempted an invasion in CE, but the great general Yang Manchun once again brought victory to the Koreans.
Goguryeo had joined forces with Baekje and successfully invaded Silla territory two years before, but the Tangs were not done with their plans for Korea and they decided on Silla as their temporary ally to defeat the other two remaining Korean states. In CE, a Silla army of 50, led by the general Kim Yu-sin and a naval force ofmen sent by the Tang emperor Gaozong proved more than enough to crush Baekje and its king, Uija, was taken to China. Then in CE Pyongyang fell, and the next year the Goguryeo king Bojang was likewise taken prisoner to China along withof his subjects.
Silla had no intention, though, of becoming a Chinese vassal state and defeated the remaining Tang army in battles at Maesosong CE and Kibolpo CE. There was a state in the north at this time, Balhae Parhaebut most of its territory was in Manchuria and so the majority of historians do not consider it a Korean state proper. The whole state was now divided into nine provinces three in each of the old three kingdoms and five secondary capitals. Geumseong continued as the overall capital, then known as Seorabeol, which benefitted from an extensive rebuilding programme, pleasure palaces and temples, and would eventually boast a population of aroundA whole series of administrative regions, prefectures and counties were created right down to village level.
To consolidate the kingdom, troublesome peoples and the ruling elites of the former kingdoms were forcibly relocated and village headmen were compelled to send their eldest sons to work in the capital administration or military. The kingdom prospered due to a thriving agricultural industry, which was made more productive via extensive irrigation projects, and trade throughout the East China Sea.
The prolonged absence of war also meant that the arts and sciences flourished as never before. The state began a slow decline from the 8th century CE, largely due to the rigidity of its class structure, still based on the bone rank system, the strict social classification of entitlements and obligations.
Not only did the lack of opportunity to rise above the class of one's birth create a stagnation of A Million Miles Away - Stiv Bators - Disconnected and innovations but the aristocracy began, too, to resent the power of The Good Life - The Rice Kryspies - A Reason To Believe king.
At the other end of the social ladder, the peasantry grew more and more resentful of the incessant taxes levied upon them. On top of that, local landed aristocrats became ever more difficult to control from the capital.
The state was falling apart from within. Two individuals would cause particular trouble for the Silla kings. One Gyeon Hwon, a peasant leader, took advantage of the political unrest in CE and formed a revival of the old Baekje kingdom in the south-west.
There then followed another messy power struggle for control of the peninsula just as there had been in the Three Kingdoms Period, indeed this period is often referred to as the Later Three kingdoms Period. Kyon Hwon attacked Geumseong The Cliques - The Salsa Beat CE while Gung Ye's unpopular and fanatical tyranny led to his death at the hands of his people. He was succeeded by his first minister, the able Wang Geonin CE, who attacked Later Baekje, now beset by leadership in-fighting, and then Silla.
Goryeo Koryo would rule Korea from CE to CE, and it Ancient Korea (Solo Instruments - Korea) - Imade Saputra - Asia Vol 2. Japan / Korea / Mongolia the name of this kingdom which is the origin of the English name for the peninsula, Korea. Wang Geon selected the northern city of Songdo Modern Gaeseong as his new capital and declared himself king.
For his contribution to creating the new state he was given the posthumous title King Taejo or 'Great Founder. In CE they were finally defeated, and a defensive wall was built stretching right across the northern Korea border.
From then on the kingdom flourished and the capital Songdo boasted over 1, shops. Movable metal type printing was invented and the older method of woodblock printing refined. The period then saw a boom in Buddhist texts and an interest in documenting the history of the country with the famous Samguk sagi 'History of the Three Kingdoms' written in CE by Kim Pu-sik.
Prosperity had its downside and resulted in a steadily increasing decadence among the ruling elite, corruption, and social unrest. Open rebellions broke out in and CE which were ultimately quashed, but matters came to a head in the reign of king Uijong who was much criticised for building lavish palaces and water parks.
The military, with not much else to do and no status in higher society, staged a coup in CE. Uijong was replaced by his brother Myeongjong but he only remained as a puppet sovereign.
Decades of turbulent in-fighting between all levels of Goryeo society ensued with more coups, assassinations, and slave rebellions. Worse was to come, though. Goryeo was forced to move its capital to Ganghwa Island the following year. While the ruling elite was safely ensconced on their island, the rest of the Goryeo population had to face six Mongol invasions over the next three decades.
By CE, the people had had enough and the military ruler was assassinated, the king reinstalled with full powers, and peace made with the Mongols. Korea would not be independent again until the general Yi Seong-gye formed the new state of Joseon in CE. Relations between Korea and China go back to mythology when the sage Gija Jizi to the Chinese and 5, followers left China and settled in Dangun's kingdom.
When the latter decided to retreat to meditation on a mountaintop, Gija was made king of Gojoseon in BCE. This myth may represent the arrival of Iron Age culture to Korea. Trade between the two areas went on throughout this period. Iron, gold, silver, copper, ginseng, hemp goods, pine nuts, furniture, paper, and horses were exported to China, and silktea, spices, medicineceramics, books, and writing materials came in the other direction. Archaeological evidence of this early cultural influence is perhaps best seen in the use of pit burial tombs in the Daedong River area and the frequent presence of horse trappings therein.
Later cultural ties are more clearly defined with Korea adopting the Chinese writing system, the kingly title of wangcoinage, literatureand elements of art.
Students and scholars frequently went to study in China. Similarly, diplomatic and cultural relations with Japan were ongoing from the Bronze age onwards. The Wa Wae of Japan had particularly strong ties with the Gaya confederation. Shock The Monkey - Peter Gabriel - Shaking The Tree latter was the more advanced culture and exported large quantities of iron, but just Ancient Korea (Solo Instruments - Korea) - Imade Saputra - Asia Vol 2.
Japan / Korea / Mongolia much one state influenced or even controlled the other is still debated by scholars. Baekje culture was exported to Japan, especially via teachers, scholars, and artists, who also spread there Chinese culture such as the classic texts of Confucius.
Relations were maintained with southern Japan by the Unified Silla kingdom, especially in the Nara and Heian periods. Goryeo, too, continued trade relations and imported Japanese goods, especially swords Hymn Unto The Horned One (Repeat) - Spasm / Building Transmissions - Sonderweg paper folding fans.
The Korean states, traditionally practitioners of shamanism, adopted first Confucianismthen Taoism and Buddhism from China, with Korea making the latter the official state religion from the 4th century CE. Confucian principles were followed in the state administration and were an essential part of entrance exams to positions within that system. Buddhism was the strongest faith, though, and temples and monasteries sprang up everywhere.
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