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Blunt trauma is physical trauma to a body part, either by impact, injury or physical attack. The latter is usually referred to as blunt force trauma. Blunt trauma is contrasted with penetrating traumain which an object such as Add Vice* - Blunt Trauma projectile or knife enters the body.
Initially, there may be few indications that serious internal abdominal injury has occurred, making assessment more challenging and requiring a high degree of clinical suspicion. There are two basic physical mechanisms at play with the potential of injury to intra-abdominal organs: compression and deceleration. This force may deform a hollow organ, increasing its intraluminal or internal pressure and possibly lead to rupture.
Decelerationon the other hand, causes stretching and shearing at the points where mobile contents in the abdomenlike bowelare anchored. This can cause tearing of the mesentery of the bowel and injury to the blood vessels that travel within the mesentery. Classic examples of these mechanisms are a hepatic tear along the ligamentum teres and injuries to the renal arteries. When blunt abdominal trauma is complicated by 'internal injury,' the liver and spleen see blunt splenic trauma are most frequently involved, followed by the small intestine.
In Add Vice* - Blunt Trauma cases, this injury has been attributed to medical techniques such as the Heimlich Maneuver attempts at CPR and manual thrusts to Its Love That Really Counts - The Shirelles - For Collectors Only an airway.
Although these are rare examples, it has been suggested that they are caused by applying excessive pressure when performing these life-saving techniques. The supervised environment in which most sports injuries occur allows for mild deviations from the traditional trauma treatment algorithms, such as ATLS, due to the greater precision in identifying the mechanism of injury.
The priority in assessing blunt trauma in sports injuries is separating contusions and musculo-tendinous injuries from injuries to solid organs and the gut and recognizing potential for developing blood loss, and reacting accordingly. Blunt injuries to the kidney from helmets, shoulder pads, and knees are described in American football,  association football, martial arts, and all-terrain vehicle accidents. The term blunt thoracic trauma or, put in a more familiar way, blunt chest injuryencompasses a variety of injuries to the chest.
Broadly, this also includes damage caused by direct blunt force such as a fist or a bat in an assaultacceleration or deceleration such as that from a rear-end automotive accidentshear force a combination of acceleration and decelerationcompression such as a heavy object falling on a personand blasts such as an explosion of some sort. Common signs and symptoms include something as simple as bruisingbut occasionally as complicated as hypoxiaventilation-perfusion mismatchhypovolemiaand reduced cardiac output due to the way the thoracic organs may have Add Vice* - Blunt Trauma affected.
Blunt thoracic trauma is not always visible from the outside and such internal injuries may not show signs or symptoms at the time the trauma initially occurs or even until hours after.
A high degree of clinical suspicion may sometimes be required to identify such injuries, a CT scan may prove useful in such instances.
Those experiencing more obvious complications from a blunt chest injury will likely undergo a focused assessment with sonography for trauma FAST which can reliably detect a significant amount of blood around the heart or in the lung by using a special machine that visualizes sound waves sent through the body.
The injuries may necessitate a procedure, with the most common being the insertion of an intercostal drainmore commonly A20.3 (Dub The United Front) - Various - Broken Channel to as a chest tube.
This tube is typically placed because it helps restore a certain balance in pressures usually due to misplaced air or surrounding blood that are impeding the lungs ability to inflate and thus exchange vital gases that allow the body to function. The primary clinical concern when blunt trauma to the head occurs is damage to the brain, although other structures, including the skull, face, orbitsand neck are also at risk.
Evaluation of blunt trauma to the head continues with the secondary survey in which evidence of cranial trauma, including bruises, contusions, lacerations, and abrasions are noted. Add Vice* - Blunt Trauma addition to noting external injury, a comprehensive neurologic exam is typically performed to assess for damage to the brain. Depending on the mechanism of injury and examination, a CT scan of the skull and brain may be ordered.
This is typically done to assess for Add Vice* - Blunt Trauma within the skullor fracture of the skull bones. Traumatic brain injury TBI is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and is most commonly caused by falls, motor vehicle accidents, sports- and work-related injuries, and assaults.
It is the most common cause of death in patients under the age of TBI is graded from mild to severe, with greater severity correlating with increased morbidity and mortality. Most patients with more severe traumatic brain injury have of a combination of intracranial injuries, Add Vice* - Blunt Trauma L.A.I.D.
- Various - Up All Night include diffuse axonal injurycerebral contusionsas well as intracranial bleedingincluding subarachnoid hemorrhagesubdural hematomaepidural hematomaand intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Injury to extremities like arms, legs, hands, feet is extremely common. The most common mechanism for solely upper extremity injuries is machine operation or tool use.
Work related accidents and vehicle crashes are also common causes. This uses a special scanner and a substance that makes it easier to examine the vessels in finer detail than what the human hand can feel or the human eye can see.
Neurologic evaluation involves testing of the major nerve functions of the axillaryradialand median nerves in the upper extremity as well as the femoralsciaticdeep Hatriot - Dawn Of The New Centurionand tibial nerves in the lower extremity. Surgical treatment may be necessary depending on the extent of injury and involved structures, but many are managed nonoperatively.
The most common causes of blunt pelvic trauma are motor vehicle accidents and multiple-story falls, and thus pelvic injuries are commonly associated with additional traumatic injuries in other locations.
One of the primary concerns is the risk of pelvic fracturewhich itself is associated with a myriad of complications including bleeding, damage to the urethra and bladderand nerve damage. During the evaluation of trauma patients in an emergency department, the stability of the pelvis is typically assessed by the healthcare provider to determine whether fracture may have occurred. Providers may then decide to order imaging such as an X-ray or CT scan to detect fractures; however, if there is concern for life-threatening bleeding, patients should receive an X-ray of the pelvis.
A life-threatening concern is hemorrhagewhich may result from damage to the aortailiac arteries or veins in the pelvis. The majority of bleeding due to pelvic trauma is due to injury to the veins. Should a patient appear hemodynamically unstable in the absence of obvious blood on the Add Vice* - Blunt Trauma scan, there may be concern for bleeding into the retroperitoneal spaceknown as retroperitoneal hematoma. Stopping the bleeding may require endovascular intervention or surgery, depending on the location and severity.
Add Vice* - Blunt Trauma most settings, the initial evaluation and stabilization of traumatic injury follows the same general principles of identifying and treating immediately life-threatening injuries. In the US, the American College of Surgeons publishes the Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines, which provide a step-by-step approach Add Vice* - Blunt Trauma the initial assessment, stabilization, diagnostic reasoning, and treatment of traumatic injuries that codifies this general principle.
This is sometimes described as the "A, B, C's"—Airway, Breathing, and Circulation—and is the first step in any resuscitation or triage. Then, the history of the accident or injury is amplified with any medical, dietary timing of last oral intake and past history, from whatever sources such as family, friends, previous treating physicians that might be available.
The amount of time spent on diagnosis should be minimized and expedited by a combination of clinical assessment and appropriate use of technology,  such as diagnostic peritoneal lavage DPLor bedside ultrasound examination FAST  before proceeding to laparotomy if required. If time and the patient's stability permits, CT examination may be carried out if available. Its disadvantages include the time taken to acquire images, although this gets shorter with each generation of scanners, and the removal of the patient from the immediate view of the emergency or surgical staff.
Many providers use the aid of a algorithm such as the ATLS guidelines to determine which images to obtain following Un Ragga Abscons - Juliette - Le Festin De Juliette initial assessment. These algorithms take into account the mechanism of injury, physical examinationand patient's vital signs to determine whether patients should have imaging or proceed directly to surgery.
Recently, criteria have been defined that might allow patients with blunt abdominal trauma to be discharged safely without further evaluation. The characteristics of such patients would include:. To be considered low risk, patients would need to meet all low-risk criteria.
When blunt trauma is significant enough to require evaluation by a healthcare provider, treatment is typically aimed at treating life-threatening injuries, which requires ensuring the patient is able to breathe and preventing ongoing blood loss. In the United States, surgical treatment of trauma typically follows the advanced trauma life support guidelines, which are developed by the American College of Surgeons.
Further treatment depends on the severity of organ damage estimated by the exam and any diagnostic studies. Ultimately treatment will vary from close observation with the ability to intervene quickly, to surgery, which may be open or laparoscopic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Blunt Force Trauma disambiguation. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America.
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