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Protoplasts differ from spheroplasts in that their cell wall has been completely removed. Cell walls are made of a variety of polysaccharides.
Protoplasts can be made by degrading cell walls with a mixture of the appropriate polysaccharide-degrading enzymes :. During and subsequent to digestion of the cell wall, the protoplast becomes very sensitive to osmotic stress.
This means cell wall digestion and protoplast storage must be done in an isotonic solution to prevent rupture of the plasma membrane. Protoplasts can be used to study membrane biology, including the uptake of macromolecules and viruses.
These are also used in somaclonal variation. Protoplasts are widely used for DNA transformation for making genetically modified organisms Adam Protoplast - Закат Цивилизации , since the cell wall would otherwise block the passage of DNA into the cell.
Unlike protoplasts from vascular plantsprotoplasts from mossessuch as Physcomitrella patensdo not need phytohormones for regeneration, nor do they form a callus during regeneration. Israel - Miles Davis - Birth Of The Cool, they regenerate directly into the filamentous protonemamimicking a germinating moss spore.
Protoplasts may also be used for plant breedingusing a technique called protoplast fusion. Protoplasts from different species are induced to fuse by using an electric field or a solution of polyethylene glycol.
Additionally, protoplasts of plants expressing fluorescent proteins in certain cells may be used for Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting FACSwhere only cells fluorescing a selected wavelength are retained. Among other things, this technique is used to isolate specific cell types e.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For mythological progenitors of humanity, see Protoplast religion. Das Protoplasma. Introduction Adam Protoplast - Закат Цивилизации Cytology. New York: McGraw Hill, p. Biotechnology Advances. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. Retrieved July 21, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Molecular Biotechnology. Protoplasma99— Molecular and General Genetics — Hidden categories: Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text.
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