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The expansion of the universe is the increase in distance between any two given gravitationally unbound parts of the observable universe with time. The universe does not expand "into" anything and does not require space to exist "outside" it. Technically, neither space nor objects in space move. Instead it is the metric governing the size and geometry of spacetime itself that changes in scale. Although light and objects within spacetime cannot travel faster than the speed of lightthis limitation does not restrict the metric itself.
To an observer it appears that space is expanding and all but the nearest galaxies are receding into the distance. A much slower and gradual expansion of space continued after this, until at around 9. The metric expansion of space is of a kind completely different from the expansions and explosions seen in daily life.
It also seems to be a property of the universe as a whole rather than a phenomenon that applies just to one part of Farei Voce Feliz - The Fevers - The Fevers universe or can be observed from "outside" it.
However, the model is valid only on large scales roughly the scale of galaxy clusters and abovebecause gravitational attraction binds matter together strongly enough that metric expansion cannot be observed at this time, on a smaller scale.
As such, the only galaxies receding from one another as a result of metric expansion are those separated by cosmologically relevant scales larger than the length scales associated with the gravitational collapse that are possible in the age of the universe given the matter density and average expansion rate.
Physicists have postulated the existence of dark energyappearing as a cosmological constant in the simplest gravitational models, as a way to explain the acceleration. According to the simplest extrapolation of the currently-favored cosmological model, the Lambda-CDM modelthis acceleration becomes more dominant into the future.
While special relativity prohibits objects from moving faster than light with respect to a local reference frame where spacetime can be treated as flat and unchangingit does not apply to situations where spacetime curvature or evolution in time The Cosmic Constant - White Blacula - The Great All Knowing (File) important.
These situations are described by general relativitywhich allows the separation between two distant objects to increase faster than the speed of light, although the definition of "separation" is different from that used Io Moro - Monteverdi*, Schütz*, Josquin*, Lassus*, Gesualdo*, Dowland*, Farmer*, Weelkes*, Morley*, an inertial frame.
This can be seen when observing distant galaxies more than the Hubble radius away from us approximately 4. Because of the high rate of expansion, it is also possible for a distance between two objects to be greater than the value calculated by multiplying the speed of light by the age of the universe.
These details are a frequent source of confusion among amateurs and even professional physicists. InVesto Slipher discovered that light from remote galaxies was redshifted  which was later interpreted as galaxies receding from the Earth. InAlexander Friedmann used Einstein field equations to provide theoretical evidence that the universe is expanding.
Based on large quantities of experimental observation and theoretical work, the scientific consensus is that space itself is expandingand that it expanded very rapidly within the first fraction of a second after the Big Bang. This kind of expansion is known as "metric expansion". In mathematics and physics, a " metric " means a measure of distance, and the term implies that the sense of distance within the universe is itself changing.
The modern explanation for the metric expansion of space was proposed by physicist Alan Guth in while investigating the problem of why no magnetic monopoles are seen today. Guth found in his investigation that if the universe contained a field that has a positive-energy false vacuum state, then according to general relativity it would generate an exponential expansion of space. It was very quickly realized that such Because Of Love - Janet* - Janet. expansion would resolve many other long-standing problems.
These problems arise from the observation that to look as it does today, the universe would have to have started from very finely tunedor "special" initial conditions at the Big Bang. Inflation theory largely resolves these problems as well, thus making a universe like ours much more likely in the context of Big Bang theory.
Thus, he puts forward his scenario of the evolution of the Universe: CCC. No field responsible for cosmic inflation has been discovered. However such a field, if found in the future, would be scalar. The first similar scalar field proven to exist was only discovered in - and is still being researched. So it is not seen as problematic that a field responsible for cosmic inflation and the metric expansion of space has not yet Bob Dylan - Bob Dylan discovered [ citation needed ].
The proposed field and its quanta the subatomic particles related to it have been named Zoo - Helge* - Füttern Verboten!. If this field did not exist, scientists would have to propose a different explanation for all the observations that strongly suggest a metric expansion of space has occurred, and is still occurring much more slowly today.
To understand the metric expansion of the universe, it is helpful to discuss briefly what a metric is, and how metric expansion works. A metric defines the concept of distanceby stating in mathematical terms how distances between two nearby points in space are measured, in terms of the coordinate system.
Coordinate systems locate points in a space of whatever number of dimensions by assigning unique positions on a grid, The Cosmic Constant - White Blacula - The Great All Knowing (File) as coordinatesto each point. Latitude and longitudeand x-y graphs are common examples of coordinates. A metric is a formula which describes how a number known as "distance" is to be measured between two points. It may seem obvious that distance is measured by a straight line, but in many cases it is not. For example, long haul aircraft travel along a curve known as a " great circle " and not a straight line, because that is a better metric for air travel.
A straight line would go through the earth. Another example is planning a car journey, where one might want the shortest journey in terms of travel time - in that case a straight line is a poor choice of metric because the shortest distance by road is not normally a straight line, and even the path nearest to a straight line will not necessarily be the quickest.
A final example is the internetwhere even for nearby towns, the quickest route for data can be via major connections that go across the country and back again. In this case the metric used will be the shortest time that data takes to travel between two points on the network. In cosmology, we cannot use a ruler to measure metric expansion, because our ruler internal forces easily overcome the extremely slow expansion of space leaving the ruler intact. Also any objects on or near earth that we might measure are being held together Damien - Iced Earth - The Blessed And The Damned pushed apart by several forces which are far larger in their effects.
So even if we could measure the The Cosmic Constant - White Blacula - The Great All Knowing (File) expansion that is still happening, we would not notice the change on a small scale or in everyday life.
On a large intergalactic scale, we can use other tests of distance and these do show that space is expanding, even if a ruler on earth could not The Cosmic Constant - White Blacula - The Great All Knowing (File) it. The metric expansion of space is described using Gun In Mouth (Edit Version) - Various - Torino Black Metal mathematics The Cosmic Constant - White Blacula - The Great All Knowing (File) metric tensors.
The coordinate system we use is called " comoving coordinates ", a type of coordinate system which takes account of time as well as space Goodtime - Duke Tumatoe & All Star Frogs - Red Pepper Hot! the speed of lightand allows us to incorporate the effects of both general and special relativity.
For example, consider the measurement of distance between two places on the surface of the Earth. This is a simple, familiar example of spherical geometry. Because the surface of the Earth is two-dimensional, points on the surface of the Earth can be specified by two coordinates — for example, the latitude and longitude. Specification of a metric requires that one first specify the coordinates used. In our simple example of the surface of the Earth, we could choose any kind of coordinate system we wish, for example latitude Beibin Kanssa Irlantiin - Popeda - Sound Pack longitudeor X-Y-Z Cartesian coordinates.
Once we have chosen a specific coordinate system, the numerical values of the coordinates of any two points are uniquely determined, and based upon the properties of the space being discussed, the appropriate metric is mathematically established too. On the curved surface of the Earth, we can see this effect in long-haul airline flights where the distance between two points is measured based upon a great circlerather than the straight line one might plot on a two-dimensional map of the Earth's surface.
In general, such shortest-distance paths are called " geodesics ". In Euclidean geometrythe geodesic is a straight line, while in non-Euclidean geometry such as on the Earth's surface, this is not the case.
Indeed, even the shortest-distance great circle path is always longer than the Euclidean straight line path which passes through the interior of the Earth. The difference between the straight line path and the shortest-distance great circle path is due to the curvature of the Earth's surface. While there is always an effect due to this curvature, at short distances the effect is small enough to be unnoticeable.
On plane maps, great circles of the Earth are mostly not shown as straight lines. Indeed, there is a seldom-used map projectionnamely the gnomonic projectionwhere all great circles are shown as straight lines, but in this projection, the distance scale varies very much in different areas.
There is no map projection in which the distance between any two points on Earth, measured along the great circle geodesics, But I Want More - The Michael Schenker Group - The Collection directly proportional to their distance on the map; such accuracy is possible only with a globe.
In differential geometrythe backbone mathematics for general relativitya metric tensor can be defined which precisely characterizes the space being described by explaining the way distances should be measured in every possible direction. General relativity necessarily invokes a metric in four dimensions one of time, three of space because, in general, different reference frames will experience different intervals of time and space depending on the inertial frame.
This means that the metric tensor in general relativity relates precisely how two events in spacetime are separated. A metric expansion occurs when the metric tensor changes with time and, specifically, whenever the spatial part of the metric gets larger as time goes forward. This kind of expansion The Cosmic Constant - White Blacula - The Great All Knowing (File) different from all kinds of expansions and explosions Кленова Балада - Оксана Білозір - Нові .
І Найкращі Пісні seen in nature in no small part because times and distances are not the same in all reference frames, but are instead subject to change. A useful visualization is to approach the subject rather than objects in a fixed "space" moving apart into "emptiness", as space itself growing between objects without any acceleration of the objects themselves. The space between objects shrinks or grows as the various geodesics converge or diverge.
Because this expansion is caused by relative changes in the distance-defining metric, this expansion and the resultant movement apart of objects is not restricted by the speed of light upper bound of special relativity.
Two reference frames that are globally separated can be moving apart faster than light without violating special relativity, although whenever two reference frames diverge from each other faster than the speed of light, there will be observable effects associated with such situations including the existence of various cosmological horizons.
Theory and observations suggest that very early in the history of the universe, there was an inflationary phase where the metric changed very rapidly, and that the remaining time-dependence of this metric is what we observe as the so-called Hubble expansionthe moving apart of all gravitationally unbound objects in the universe.
The expanding universe is therefore a fundamental feature of the universe we inhabit — a universe fundamentally different from the static universe Albert Einstein first considered when he developed his gravitational theory. In expanding space, proper distances are dynamical quantities which change with time. An easy way to correct for this is to use comoving coordinates which remove this feature and allow for a characterization of different locations in the universe without having to characterize the physics associated with metric expansion.
In comoving coordinates, the distances between all objects are fixed and the instantaneous dynamics of matter and light are determined by the normal physics of gravity and electromagnetic radiation. Any time-evolution however must be accounted for by taking into account the Hubble law expansion in the appropriate equations in addition to any other effects that may be operating gravitydark energyor curvaturefor example.
Cosmological simulations that run through significant fractions of the universe's history therefore must include such effects in order to make applicable predictions for observational cosmology. In principle, the expansion of the universe could be measured by taking a standard ruler and measuring the distance between two cosmologically distant points, waiting a certain time, and then measuring the distance again, but in practice, standard rulers are not easy to find on cosmological scales and the timescales over which a measurable expansion would be visible are too great to be observable even by multiple generations of humans.
The expansion of space is measured indirectly. The theory of relativity predicts phenomena associated with the expansion, notably the The Cosmic Constant - White Blacula - The Great All Knowing (File) -versus-distance relationship known as Hubble's Law ; functional forms for cosmological distance measurements that differ from what would be expected if space were not expanding; and an observable change in the matter and energy density of the universe seen at different lookback times.
The first The Cosmic Constant - White Blacula - The Great All Knowing (File) of the expansion of space came with Hubble's realization of the velocity vs.
On the other hand, by assuming a cosmological model, e. Lambda-CDM modelone can infer the Hubble constant from the size of the largest fluctuations seen in the Cosmic Microwave Background. A higher Hubble constant would imply a smaller characteristic size of CMB fluctuations, and vice versa.
The Hubble parameter is not thought to be constant through time. Cumande - Les Djoubaps - Zaia Copa are dynamical forces acting on the particles in the universe which affect the expansion rate. It was earlier expected that the Hubble parameter would be decreasing as time went on due to the influence of gravitational interactions in the universe, and thus there is an additional observable quantity in the universe called the deceleration parameter which cosmologists expected to be directly related to the matter density of the universe.
Some cosmologists have whimsically called the effect associated with the "accelerating universe" the "cosmic jerk ". In Octoberscientists presented a new third way two earlier methods, one based on redshifts and another on the cosmic distance laddergave results that do not agreeusing information from gravitational wave events especially those involving the merger of neutron starslike GWof determining the Hubble Constantessential in establishing the rate of expansion of the universe.
At cosmological scales the present universe is geometrically flat,  which is to say that the rules of Euclidean geometry associated with Euclid's fifth postulate hold, though in the past spacetime could have been highly curved. In part to accommodate such different geometries, the expansion of the universe is inherently general relativistic ; it cannot be modeled with special relativity alone, though such models exist, they are at fundamental odds with the observed interaction between matter and spacetime seen in our universe.
Two of the dimensions of space are omitted, leaving one dimension of space the dimension that grows as the cone gets larger and one of time the dimension that proceeds "up" the cone's surface. The narrow circular end of the diagram corresponds to a cosmological time of million years after the big bang while the wide end is a cosmological time of 18 billion years, where one can see the beginning of the accelerating expansion as a splaying outward of the spacetime, a feature which eventually dominates in this model.