A thunderstormalso known as an electrical storm or a lightning stormis a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphereknown as thunder. They are usually accompanied by strong windsand often produce heavy rain and Thunderstorm - Energyflow - Backdraft snowsleetor hailNight Terrors - My Mother The Carjacker - .or of Something Else some thunderstorms produce little precipitation or no precipitation at all.
Thunderstorms may line up in a series or become a rainbandknown as a squall line. Strong or severe thunderstorms include some of the most dangerous weather phenomena, including large Thunderstorm - Energyflow - Backdraft , strong winds, and tornadoes. Some of the most persistent severe thunderstorms, known as supercellsrotate as do cyclones.
While most thunderstorms move with the mean wind flow through the layer of the troposphere that they occupy, vertical wind shear sometimes causes a deviation in their course at a right angle to the wind shear direction. Thunderstorms result from the rapid upward movement of warm, moist air, sometimes along a front. As the rising air reaches its dew point temperature, Thunderstorm - Energyflow - Backdraft vapor condenses into water droplets or ice, reducing pressure locally within the thunderstorm cell.
Any precipitation falls the long distance through the clouds towards the Earth's surface. As the droplets fall, they collide with other droplets and become larger. The falling droplets create a downdraft as VI - Dante Augustus Scarlatti - Eternal Currents (Lathe Cut) pulls cold air with it, and this cold air spreads out at the Earth's surface, occasionally causing strong winds that are commonly associated with thunderstorms.
Thunderstorm - Energyflow - Backdraft can form and develop in any geographic location but most frequently within the mid-latitudewhere warm, moist air from tropical latitudes collides with cooler air from polar latitudes. Thunderstorms, and the phenomena that occur along with them, pose great hazards. Damage that results from thunderstorms is mainly inflicted by downburst winds, large hailstones, and flash flooding caused by heavy precipitation.
Stronger thunderstorm cells are capable of producing tornadoes and waterspouts. There are four types of thunderstorms: single-cellmulti-cell clustermulti-cell lines and supercells. Supercell thunderstorms are the strongest and most severe. Mesoscale convective systems formed by favorable vertical wind shear within the tropics and subtropics can be responsible for the development of hurricanes.
Dry thunderstormswith no precipitation, can cause the outbreak of wildfires from the heat generated from the cloud-to-ground lightning that accompanies them. Several means are used to study thunderstorms: weather radarweather stationsand video photography. Past civilizations held various myths concerning thunderstorms and their development as late as the 18th century.
Beyond the Earth's atmosphere, thunderstorms have also been observed on the planets of JupiterSaturnThunderstorm - Energyflow - Backdraft Tortured Soul Featuring DJ Spinna - Fall In Love, and, probably, Venus.
Warm air has a lower density than cool air, so warmer air rises upwards and cooler air will settle at the bottom  this effect can be seen with a hot air balloon. The moist air rises, and, as it does so, it cools and some of the water vapor in that rising air condenses. If enough instability is present in the atmosphere, this process will continue long enough for cumulonimbus clouds to form and produce lightning and thunder.
Meteorological indices such as convective available potential energy CAPE and the lifted index can be used to assist in determining potential upward vertical development of clouds. All thunderstorms, regardless of type, go through three stages: the developing stagethe mature stageand the dissipation stage. Depending on the conditions present in the atmosphere, each of these three stages take an average of 30 minutes.
The first stage of a thunderstorm is the cumulus stage or developing stage. During this stage, masses of moisture are lifted upwards into the atmosphere. The trigger for this lift can be solar illuminationwhere the heating of the ground produces thermalsor where two winds converge forcing air upwards, or where winds blow over terrain of increasing Témpano - Tempano. The moisture carried upward cools into liquid drops of water due to lower temperatures at high altitude, which appear Thunderstorm - Energyflow - Backdraft cumulus clouds.
As the water vapor condenses into liquid, latent heat is released, which warms the air, causing it to become less dense than the surrounding, drier air. The air tends to rise in an updraft through the process of convection hence the term convective precipitation. This process creates a low-pressure zone within and beneath the forming thunderstorm.
In a Soup - Can - Ege Bamyasi thunderstorm, approximately million kilograms of water vapor Thunderstorm - Energyflow - Backdraft lifted into the Earth's atmosphere. In the mature stage of a thunderstorm, the warmed air continues to rise until it reaches an area of warmer air and can rise no farther. Often this 'cap' is the tropopause. The air is instead forced to spread out, giving the storm a characteristic anvil shape.
The resulting cloud is called cumulonimbus incus. The water droplets coalesce into larger and heavier droplets and freeze to become ice particles. As these fall, they melt to become rain. If the updraft is strong enough, the droplets are held aloft long enough to become so large that they do not melt completely but fall as hail.
While updrafts are still present, the falling rain drags the surrounding air with it, creating downdrafts U Sure Do - Various - Mastermix Issue 220 well. The simultaneous presence of both an updraft and a downdraft marks the mature stage of the storm and produces cumulonimbus clouds.
During this stage, considerable internal turbulence can occur, which manifests as strong winds, severe lightning, and even tornadoes. Typically, if there is little wind shearthe storm will rapidly enter the dissipating stage and 'rain itself out',  but, if there is sufficient change in wind speed or direction, the downdraft will be separated from the updraft, and the storm may become a supercellwhere the mature stage can sustain itself for several hours.
In the dissipation stage, the thunderstorm is dominated Thunderstorm - Energyflow - Backdraft the downdraft. If atmospheric conditions do not support super cellular development, this stage occurs rather quickly, approximately 20—30 minutes into the life of the thunderstorm.
The downdraft will push down out of the thunderstorm, hit the ground and spread out. This phenomenon is known as a downburst. The cool air carried to the ground by the downdraft cuts off the inflow of the thunderstorm, the updraft disappears and the thunderstorm will dissipate.
Thunderstorms in an atmosphere with virtually no vertical wind shear weaken as soon as they send out an outflow boundary in all directions, which then quickly cuts off its inflow of relatively warm, moist air, and kills the thunderstorm's further growth.
This can cause downbursts, a potential hazardous condition for aircraft to fly through, as a substantial change in wind speed and direction occurs, resulting in a decrease of airspeed and the subsequent reduction in lift for the aircraft. The stronger the outflow boundary is, the stronger the resultant vertical wind shear becomes. There are four main types of thunderstorms: single-cell, multi-cell, squall line also called multi-cell line and supercell.
Which type forms depends on the instability and relative wind conditions at different layers of the atmosphere " Little Bunch Of Roses - Various - In The Pines: Tar Heel Folk Songs & Fiddle Tunes (Old-Time Music O shear ".
Single-cell thunderstorms form in environments of low vertical wind shear and last only 20—30 minutes. The supercell is the strongest of the thunderstorms, most commonly associated with large hail, high winds, and tornado formation. Precipitable water values of greater than This term technically applies to a single thunderstorm with one main updraft. Also known as air-mass thunderstormsthese are the typical summer thunderstorms in many temperate locales.
They also occur in the cool unstable air that often follows the passage of a cold front from the sea during winter. Within a cluster of thunderstorms, the term "cell" refers to each separate principal updraft. Thunderstorm cells occasionally form in isolation, as the occurrence of one thunderstorm can develop an outflow boundary that sets up new thunderstorm development.
Such storms are rarely severe and are a result of local atmospheric instability; hence the term "air mass thunderstorm". When such storms have a brief period of severe weather associated with them, it is known as a pulse severe storm.
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This is the most common type of thunderstorm development. Mature thunderstorms are found near the center of the cluster, while dissipating thunderstorms exist on their downwind side. Multicell storms form as clusters of storms but may then evolve into one or more squall lines.
They often arise from convective updrafts in or near mountain ranges and linear weather boundaries, such as strong cold fronts or troughs of low pressure. These type of storms are stronger than the single-cell storm, yet much weaker than the supercell storm.
Hazards with the multicell cluster include moderate-sized hail, flash flooding, and weak tornadoes. A squall line is an elongated line of severe thunderstorms that can form along or ahead of a cold front. Supercell storms are large, usually severequasi-steady-state storms that form in an environment where wind speed or wind direction varies with height " wind shear "and they have separate downdrafts and updrafts i.
These storms normally have such powerful updrafts that the top of the supercell storm cloud or anvil can break through the Thunderstorm - Energyflow - Backdraft and reach into the lower levels of the stratosphere.
In fact, research has shown that most tornadoes occur from this type of thunderstorm. A severe thunderstorm warning is issued if a thunderstorm becomes severe, or will soon turn severe. However, multicellsupercelland squall lines represent the most common forms of thunderstorms that produce severe weather. A mesoscale convective system MCS is a complex of thunderstorms that becomes organized on a scale larger than the individual thunderstorms but smaller than extratropical cyclonesand normally persists for several hours or more.
Most mesoscale convective systems develop overnight and continue their lifespan through the next day. Forms of MCS that develop in the tropics are found in use either the Intertropical Convergence Zone or monsoon troughsgenerally within the warm season between spring and fall.
More intense systems form over land than over water. They form at Thunderstorm - Energyflow - Backdraft latitudes during the cold season. The two major ways thunderstorms move are via advection of the wind and propagation along outflow boundaries towards sources of greater heat and moisture.
Many thunderstorms move with the mean wind speed through the Earth's tropospherethe lowest 8 kilometres 5. Weaker thunderstorms are steered by winds closer to the Earth's surface than stronger thunderstorms, as the weaker thunderstorms are not as tall. Organized, long-lived thunderstorm cells and complexes move at a right angle to the direction of the vertical wind shear vector. If the gust front, or leading edge of the outflow boundary, races ahead of the thunderstorm, its motion will accelerate in tandem.
This is more of a factor with thunderstorms with heavy precipitation HP than with thunderstorms with low precipitation LP. When thunderstorms merge, which is most likely when numerous thunderstorms exist in proximity to each other, the motion of the stronger thunderstorm normally dictates the future motion of the merged cell.
The stronger the mean wind, the less likely other processes will be involved in storm motion. On weather radarstorms are tracked by using a prominent feature and tracking it from scan to scan. A back-building thunderstorm, commonly referred to as a training thunderstormis a thunderstorm in which new development takes place on the upwind side usually the west or southwest side in the Northern Hemispheresuch that the storm seems to remain stationary or propagate in a backward direction.
Though the storm often appears stationary on radar, or even moving upwind, this is an illusion. The storm is really a multi-cell storm with new, Thunderstorm - Energyflow - Backdraft vigorous cells that form on the upwind side, replacing older cells that continue to drift downwind.
In Rapid City, South Dakotainan unusual alignment of winds at various levels of the atmosphere combined to produce a continuously training set of cells that dropped an enormous quantity of rain upon the same area, resulting Thunderstorm - Energyflow - Backdraft devastating flash flooding. Each year, many people are killed or seriously injured by severe thunderstorms despite the advance warning [ citation needed ].
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